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April 16, 2022

Book Summary – 22 immutable laws of marketing

Book Summaries Digital Marketing

22 Immitable Laws of Marketing is a classic text and came a generation before current digital marketing revolution. Some of its recommendations may be more relevant for large enterprises than small and medium business. Yet, many of those principles are classic and still have applicability in current era.

Find a summary of the book 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing below:


#1. It’s the Law of Perception: “Marketing is not a battle of products, it’s a battle of perceptions.”

“Marketing people are occupied with conducting research and getting the facts. They scrutinize the circumstances to make sure that the truth is in their favor. They then go confidently into market marketing arena, confident with the confidence that they’ve got the best product, and ultimately, the product with the highest quality will prevail. It’s a lie. There isn’t any objective reality. There are no factual facts. There aren’t any top products. Everything that is available in the field of marketing are the perceptions that exist in mind of the consumer or potential customer. The perception is what we call reality. The rest is illusion.”

#2. 2. Law of Focus: “The most powerful concept in marketing is owning a word in the prospect’s mind.”

“This can be described as the law of focused. You burn your way into the brain by limiting the focus to one idea or word. It’s the ultimate marketing sacrifice. Federal Express was able to make overnight a part of the minds of its customers by sacrificing its product range and concentrated exclusively on delivery of packages overnight. … Most effective phrases are those that are easy and beneficial. Whatever the complexity of the product, or how complex the requirements of the market, it’s best to concentrate on one phrase or benefit, rather than the other three.”

#3. What is the Law of Success: “Success often leads to arrogance, and arrogance to failure.”

This law serves as a warning of pride before the fall. How do we stop our self-importance from affecting your marketing vision? Don’t forget the “first love” connection with the client. Be empathetic. Consider ourselves in the customers’ in their shoes. Be aware of their fears and desires, and then talk to these ideals. The best source of information on selling to a particular segment of the population is market itself, if we remain humble and teachable.

Immutable laws of marketing

The most successful businesses are the ones that offer top-quality products and the largest marketing budgets you think? Wrong. Although quality products and huge reserves of cash certainly aid but they aren’t the sole factor that determines the success of a business. In this 1993 publication, marketing experts Al Ries and Jack Trout outline the 22 laws which govern the best practices and what’s not in marketing. Ries and Trout spent more than 25 years studying most popular (and numerous lesser-known) brands to determine the strategies that lead to success and those that lead to failure. In their study they found common ground which they’ve condensed into 22 immutable laws.

  1. Persuade customers that you are the only option Your product should be positioned as the most desirable option in your industry.
  2. Focus your message: Create a unique, targeted marketing message.
  3. Utilize the market’s position Learn about the way that markets behave in general and then make use of that knowledge to guide the marketing strategy.
  4. Make sure you are consistent Your product should be positioned as the top of the market and design your marketing around it so that customers are aware of what to expect from your company.
  5. Be deliberate about your overall marketing strategy Apart from the particulars that you will use in your marketing message, you should be mindful of your overall tone and strategy.
  6. Make it to the top and remain there Beyond the marketing aspect of your company, make sure that your business is in good health to ensure its long-term success.)

Convince Consumers That You’re the Only Viable Option

The four initial laws of marketing are focused on how you can make yourself the most popular choice in your industry. In each major product category There’s a brand that instantly pops into the minds of consumers. For chocolate, Hershey’s is the brand to choose. For cellophane tape you can use Scotch tape. The most popular brands are those that are considered to be the most popular in their category. Follow these laws to ensure that your product is the consumer’s top option.

Law #1: Be the First in Your Field

People are prone to remember firsts, and businesses that are the first to be introduced to their market tend to be more successful than the ones that follow, even though the newcomers are better at their job. Furthermore, the first to be introduced in a market are often the market leaders for a long time, even though late competitors have better quality products.

Law #2: If You Can’t Be First, Create a New Category

If you’ve got a fantastic product, but another company was the first to market in the market, you can create a category where you’re the first. You don’t need to completely alter your product. Just discover something that makes it stand out. For instance the time that Charles Schwab opened a brokerage firm, rather than rivaling with established firms, he created one of the very first low-cost brokerage company.

Law #3: Be the First Brand in Consumers’ Minds

While Law #1 states that you have to be first to market, Law #3 amends that principleto say that above all it is important to be first in people’s minds. When consumers consider the product or service you offer, they ought to instantly think about your company. Being the first to market is just an advantage in getting to the forefront of the public’s minds.

Law #4: Perception Trumps Fact

In the fight for potential customers’ attention You must not just to be the first in your mind but also to be the the best in your own mind. Contrary to popular opinion the most effective weapon in marketing isn’t the quality that your item is, however the perception that people have about your products. Simply put, perception is what matters regardless of what research or performance tests reveal that your marketing is only effective when consumers believe that your product is top-quality. Create your marketing strategy around how people make their perceptions through certain laws that we’ll be discussing in the future (such for laws number 8 and 15). Marketing can alter people’s perceptions and, consequently the reality they experience.

Focus Your Message

It is important to remember that the marketing laws within the 2nd group focus on the significance of on the specificity of your marketing message. To make it easier for consumers to remember and pay attention to your brand, you must to communicate a distinctive targeted message that will set you apart from other companies. A targeted marketing strategy to a particular audience will get the greatest attention. Utilize these laws to outline the product you’re selling in a manner that is clear and appealing to potential customers.

Law #5: Pick One Word to Define Your Brand

To establish a strong lasting impression that is cherished by the general public, it is essential to build your marketing strategy around a single word. The word you choose should be the main message you wish consumers to recall about your brand, whether the word is “reliability,” “affordable,” or “service.” A effective marketing strategy will create an all-encompassing connection between your brand’s name along with your products. For example, Mercedes has built its reputation on the concept of “engineering” by boasting state-of-the-art technology and innovative features. When choosing a phrase you should consider these points:

  • Simple is best. No matter if the product market is intricate one simple word will be better than many words. To create this narrow focus requires discipline.
  • Be specific. Pick a term that sets you apart from your competition. A term like “quality” is too vague to be associated with any single brand, since every firm will claim to offer a high-quality product.
  • Make use of a loaded word. Effective words can create the appearance of a halo, meaning that they suggest that your product is also a good one. other attractive characteristics. For instance, if you advertise your car with the tagline “reliable,” that word may also suggest that your car is secure durable, long-lasting, and easy to maintain.

Law #6: Don’t Use Another Brand’s Word

When choosing your words ensure that no one else already uses the same word. The objective is to make an indefinable connection between your company’s image, but you won’t be able to do that by using the same phrase. Even if you’ve got a significant amount of money towards your marketing campaign, it’s impossible to use a phrase that a different firm already uses. If you attempt, you might be able to strengthen the message since you’ll be highlighting the importance of the word that is already associated with the brand.

Law #7: Choose a Highly Valued Attribute

If you are choosing a word to describe your company, you must first decide on the characteristic that consumers value the most in the item. For example, in the market for toothpaste the most crucial characteristic is its ability to fight against cavities. If a different brand has succeeded in claiming the top attribute, you can move to the next best, oppositeattribute–for example, “whitening” or “fresh breath.” Although “cavities” and “whitening” aren’t absolute opposites, they both appeal to different needs which are one medical and the other being aesthetic. If you attempt in claiming an attribute liketo your competition’s but you’ll be being in the shadow of their competitors (more about the subject further in Law #10).

Leverage Your Market Position

The following category of marketing laws will explain the way that markets behave in general and how you can utilize the information to formulate the marketing strategy. Every business wants to be the market leader, however, few businesses are. Be aware of your place on the market and make use of that information to convey the consumer of your brand. These laws describe how to make your position more efficient marketing.

Law #8: Use a Message That Reflects Your Market Position

If you’re not a market leader be aware of your position within the market and recognize that in your advertisements. Every category of product has a order of brands. Consider it as an a-ladder. The leader in the market is at the top and every rung below is occupied by a second-best-selling brand. If your brand is on the 2nd step, you must be upfront about this in the course of your marketing. The consumer knows where you’re in the hierarchy and will only take marketing messages that reflect the truth. Otherwise, they’ll ignore your entire marketing message.

Avis employed this rule of thumb when it was lagging behind Hertz when it came to the rent-a-car market. When Avis first announced a campaign that claimed to be”the “Finest in rent-a-cars,” it was unsuccessful because the message wasn’t resonating with the same level of truth. However Avis changed between being in the red to losing funds to being able to makemoney after it changed its marketing strategy to include the words, “Avis is only No. 2 in rental cars. Why choose us? We are always trying harder.” This company recognized its role and offered consumers an incentive to pick it regardless.

Law #9: Every Market Becomes a Two-Rung Ladder

If a category of product is relatively new it is possible that the ladder has several rungs, as new businesses are added to the mix and compete to win customers. However, eventually, each market is reduced to two major brands, and every competitor fights to grab the crumbs. Depending on how fast the market changes it can be years or even decades before it can become a race between two companies. And it’s crucial to your business that you maintain and secure your place in the two best positions in your industry.

Law #10: If You Can’t Be the Market Leader, Be the Opposite

To ensure that you are in the second place in your market ladder take the strengths of your market leader into their weaknesses. Do not try to beat your competition in what they do best. Instead try to be your own strengths to counteract it. For example, you might be the cheapest alternative to the more expensive option. The majority of consumers will find themselves drawnto the most well-known brand or be spooked from it. Make a statement about the market share of consumers searching for something different by explaining what makes your product unique and what is better than. For example, when Coca-Cola was a colossal success as the traditional beverage, Pepsi positioned itself to offer a new alternative to the younger generations.

Be Consistent

Focusing on your campaign is essential as is focusing your products. If you concentrate your efforts in promoting your product as being the best (or among the top) within its class and creating the marketing campaign to promote that product customers will be aware of what they can expect from your company. In contrast, if you alter your products or your approach the customers won’t be aware of what they can expect, and will turn to an alternative that’s more familiar. Follow these laws to keep your consistent.

Law #11: Use a Different Brand Name for Each Category

In time, as the number of businesses in a market decreases as the market becomes smaller, the industry is likely to be divided into distinct categories. For example the one “computer” category eventually divided into minicomputers, mainframes laptops, personal computers and notebooks. If a leader in the market wants to be a part of one of these new categories, they need an entirely new brand name for the segment. Customers have become accustomed to identifying the existing brand name with a particular characteristic (Law #5) So the business will require a brand new name to connect to a suitable term to describe the new category.

Law #12: Consider the Long Term

As with many things in life in the field of marketing the short-term consequences of an act can be contrary to long-term results. The smartest marketers will resist getting swayed by the short-term advantages and be mindful of the long-term consequences of their decisions. For example, Miller High Life had seen its sales increase significantly every year prior to the introduction of Miller Lite. Five years after the launch of Miller Lite, sales for Miller High Life had nearly tripled, but sales gradually declined throughout the following 13 years, dropping to levels that were lower than they had been prior to the introduction of Miller Lite, a light beer.

Law #13: Don’t Extend Your Brand to Other Categories

If you’ve had a great success with a product in one area avoid the temptation to launch new products that are in different categories with identical brand names. This is known as line extension. While it may seem like a sensible option to expand the success you’ve already achieved however, it can confuse customers and diminishes your brand’s strengths. The credibility you establish within one particular market may not translate to other categories of products. If you try to appeal to everyone then you’ll end up doing nobody to anyone. For instance when 7-Up came up with various new flavor and variants of its drink and its market share was reduced by more than half between 5.7 percentage from 5.7 percent to 2.5 percent.

Law #14: Sacrifice for Success

As these laws demonstrate, it requires determination and perseverance to run an effective marketing campaign. Particularly it is imperative to focus on three specific areas in which it is essential to give up certain messages, products or ideas to keep a strict and focused focus:

  1. Line of business: as mentioned in Law #13, more products and services will not result in more profit because they undermine the customers’ connection to the brand. People are much more inclined visit you if they are confident that they can be able to rely on your company for only one thing instead of an assortment of all kinds of.
  2. Marketing professionals incorrectly think that targeting an audience that is larger in their ads will help increase the number of customers they have. But your marketing target does not represent your client base. Concentration is the key to success. Most successful companies target an extremely specific segment of the population in their marketing. This will result in a wider customer base. Targeted messages are more successful overall and raise the brand’s visibility on the market, which leads to a wider customer base.
  3. Changes in the market: Avoid continuously altering your marketing strategy to keep up with the evolving market. If you are constantly changing you’ll lose the focus and diminish the impression you’ve made in the minds of people around you. It’s better to stay with the method that has served you effectively.

Be Strategic About Your Overall Marketing Plan

Apart from the specifics of your marketing campaign, such as your words and your main message to your customers–you must consider the overall tone and strategy. Utilize these laws to think about the bigger overall picture of your marketing strategy.

Law #15: Turn Your Negatives Into Positives

If consumers and brands criticize something negative regarding your brand, you must acknowledge the negative and transform it into an opportunity to make it positive. If you attempt to ignore the negative–especially when it’s well-known fact, you’ll lose credibility. The trick is to come up with a method to prove that the negative feature implies the positive aspects. For example, Scope mouthwash advertised “good-tasting” as an attribute since it was widely known that its rival, Listerine, had an unpleasant taste. To counter this, Listerine embraced the negative with the tagline “The taste you hate twice a day.” The tagline meant that the bad flavor must indicate that it’s extremely effective in killing germs and it urged users to buy the product regardless of its taste since it was beneficial to the health of their mouths.

Law #16: Focus on Big, Bold Moves

In marketing one of the best ways to gain an impact against your competition is to concentrate on finding opportunities to make an enthralling move that leaves a lasting effect. Your competitor may possess a weak point which you need to focus all your efforts towards utilizing this weakness. These opportunities are likely to be rare and infrequent but when you spot opportunities, take advantage of the opportunities. That means your company’s top executives must be at the forefront in the know about what’s happening in the market, and deeply engaged in the marketing process, so that they are prepared to capitalize on opportunities whenever they occur.

Law #17: Plan for Unpredictability

Marketing plans often are built on beliefs about the future however, there’s a chance that these plans will fail when competitors make an unexpected move for example, like inventing a new technology that is disruptive. Whatever way you monitor the market and how meticulously you conduct market research, you can’t be able to predict the future accurately unless you’re creating plans for your competitors. Instead, come up with a short-term plan–a shorter scope requires less forecasting and fewer chances of disruption from unpredictability–accompanied by a long-term direction to guide your future plans:

  • Your short-term marketing plan is based around an idea or word that distinguishes your brand from your competitors.
  • Your long-term marketing plan is a strategy which builds on that idea or word.

Get on Top and Stay There

The laws we’ve covered in the past will help you create your overall marketing strategy and communication The final laws offer more general guidance on how to conduct your business.

Law #18: Don’t Underestimate the Need for Funding

Whatever your concept may be however, you require funds in order to sell your idea. Marketing is the process of getting your service or product into the mind of consumers and it is essential to have money to not only reach them initially but also to keep them within their thoughts. Marketing is a continuous, costly battle. Even household names such as Procter & Gamble and General Motors invest billions of dollars each year to remain in the consumer their minds.

Law #19: Embrace Failure

Failure is part of the process. Being successful in business is to accept and embrace failure. If you embrace failure:

  • You’ll want to take the risk which are essential for huge reward.
  • You’ll be able take lessons from mistakes and continuously increase your.

Law #20: Don’t Believe Hype

If the media generates an abundance of hype surrounding an organization or a brand new item, this is generally an ineffective indicator of the performance. When businesses are doing well, they don’t have to create excitement since it’s naturally occurring. In contrast, when businesses are struggling, or when they’re making a bet on an unproven product, that’s usually when they’re beginning to hold press conferences and reaching out media outlets. If a rival brand is receiving a lot of attention from the media Don’t base your decision in the belief that your competition is in the process of growing.

Law #21: Follow Trends, Not Fads

It’s crucial to recognize the distinction between trends and fads as fads may harm your business, while trends may bring long-term success to your business:

  • Fads are temporary. They come and go like waves that creates a lot buzz, inundate markets and disappear as quickly as they climbed.
  • The trends are long-term. They are subtle, and almost invisible. They last for decades or even years.

Beware of investing in flashy ads. While fads are sometimes profitable, their limited time of existence could cause more harm than benefit to the business. When the company has set up the personnel, manufacturing and distribution that is required the fad has ended. If you’re selling a product which has become a fad, then the best way to go is to slow down the fad’s impact by limiting quantity of the product, which will maintain the demand of the item. In the ideal scenario, you’ll want to dampen the fad to the point that it is that it can be transformed into an ongoing trend.

Law #22: Don’t Let Your Success Sink You

Make sure that this you’re not able to cause your own downfall:

  1. Success is a way to boost executives’ egos, leading them to make choices which can be detrimental to the business.
  2. Achieving success causes businesses to expand, which results in more pressure on executives’ hours. Although a large firm has the resources to invest in strong marketing however, this advantage can be offset with the fact that executives are required to be more involved in meetings for the company, coordinating other obligations, and performing everything else necessary to manage a large business. This is why they are more likely to delegate marketing decisions, however the success of a company along with its marketing strategy is dependent on the involvement of the top management.
  3. As CEOs get further removed from their work and their subordinates become less likely to speak to them about the truth. In the end, executives are usually out of touch with the issues and problems that could influence their decisions.
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